1. Digital Phenotyping
Can we better understand the lived experience of mental illness? Can we predict when a person may be at risk or relapse? Does real world functioning in conditions like depression or schizophrenia offer clues to the underlying biology and neural basis of these illnesses?
Research efforts in this space include clinical studies across diverse mental illnesses seeking to understand the lived experiences of illness from the combined vantage point of self report, behavior, and physiology gathered both actively and passively from smartphones and sensors. In partnership with the Onnela Lab we are using the Beiwe Platform alongside LAMP to study schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's Disease, and stress across ongoing studies.
- Characterizing the clinical relevance of digital phenotyping data quality with applications to a cohort with schizophrenia . J Torous, P Staples, I Barnett , LR Sandoval, M Keshavan, JP Onnela. npj Digital Medicine. 2018 Apr 6;1(1):15.
- Relapse prediction in schizophrenia through digital phenotyping: a pilot study. I Barnett*, J Torous*, P Staples, L Sandoval, M Keshavan, JP Onnela. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Feb 22:1.
- A crossroad for validating digital tools in schizophrenia and mental health. J Torous, P Staples, I Barnett, JP Onnela, M Keshavan. npj Schizophrenia. 2018
- New tests, new tools: mobile and connected technologies in advancing psychiatric diagnosis. LW Roberts, S Chan S, J Torous. npj Digital Medicine. 2018 Feb 26;1(1):6.
- High potential but limited evidence: Using voice data from smartphones to monitor and diagnose mood disorders. F Or, J Torous, JP Onnela. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2017 Sep; 40(3):320-324.
- New tools for new research in psychiatry: A scalable and customizable platform to empower data driven smartphone research. J Torous, MV Kiang, J Lorme, JP Onnela. JMIR Mental Health 3 (2), e16, 2016
- Why Psychiatry Needs Data Science and Data Science Needs Psychiatry: Connecting With Technology. J Torous, JT Baker, JAMA psychiatry, 1-2, 2015
- Realizing the potential of mobile mental health: new methods for new data in psychiatry. J Torous, P Staples, JP Onnela. Current psychiatry reports 17 (8), 1-7, 2015
- Utilizing a personal smartphone custom app to assess the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder, J Torous, P Staples, M Shanahan, C Lin, P Peck, M Keshavan, JP Onnela. JMIR mental health 2 (1), 2014
2. Digital Clinics and Design
What is the best way to integrate digital health with clinical care? How can digital health tools like smartphone apps improve patient outcomes? Can clinicians use smartphone app and sensor data as part of routine clinical care?
Implementation efforts in this space include the development and founding of a new 'digital psychiatry' clinic that will maintain strong therapeutic relationships with patients through both face to face care as well as remote smartphone and sensor monitoring tools. Through strong partnerships, we are exploring how to use technology to augment, not disrupt, the clinical care experience and improve both outcomes and quality.
- Empowering the digital therapeutic relationship: virtual clinics for digital health interventions. J Torous, H Hsin. npj Digital Medicine. 2018 May 16;1(1):16.
- Clinical review of user engagement with mental health smartphone apps: evidence, theory and improvements. J Torous J, J Nicholas, ME Larsen, J Firth, H Christensen. Evidence-based mental health. June 2018
- 3rd Symposium on Computing and Mental Health: Understanding, Engaging, and Delighting Users. G Wadley, R Calvo R, J Torous J, M Czerwinski . In Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2018 Apr 20 (p. Sym04). ACM.
- The WPA-Lancet psychiatry commission on the future of psychiatry. D Bhugra, A Tasman, S Pathare, S Priebe, S Smith, J Torous, MR Arbuckle, A Langford, RD Alarcón, HF Chiu, MB First. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 31;4(10):775-818.
- An Adjuvant Role for Mobile Health in Psychiatry. H Hsin, J Torous, L Roberts. JAMA psychiatry, 1-2, 2016
- Patient smartphone ownership and interest in mobile apps to monitor symptoms of mental health conditions: A survey in four geographically distinct psychiatric clinics. J Torous, SR Chan, SYM Tan, J Behrens, I Mathew, EJ Conrad, L Hinton, ... JMIR mental health 1 (1), 2014
- Smartphone ownership and interest in mobile applications to monitor symptoms of mental health conditions. J Torous, R Friedman, M Keshavan. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2 (1), e2, 2014
3. App Evaluation : Safety, Efficacy, Engagement, and Interoperability
There are over 10,000 mental health and wellness smartphone apps available today. Which are useful? Which are dangerous? Which protect your data. Which sell it? Which is right for you?
Research efforts in this space seek to capture the state of smartphone apps and sensors for mental health - and the implications for consumers, patients, clinicians, hospitals, and healthcare payers. Our groups' work is reflected in the American Psychiatric Association's smartphone app evaluation framework and we continue to look at apps through the lens of ethics, safety, efficacy, usability, and interoperability.
We are collaborating with health care systems to bring these standards into clinical practice and to help institutions create digital mental health toolkits for their patient populations. Using elements of our app evaluation framework, clinicians and patients at Cambridge Health Alliance created this Behavioral Health Self-Help Guide for use within primary care, outpatient, and specialty departments.
- The Emerging Imperative for a Consensus Approach Toward the Rating and Clinical Recommendation of Mental Health Apps. J Torous, J Firth, K Huckvale , M Larsen , T Cosco, R Carney, S Chan S, A Pratap, P Yellowlees, T Wykes, M Keshavan, H Christensen. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2018 Jul 17.
- Clinical review of user engagement with mental health smartphone apps: evidence, theory and improvements. J Torous, J Nicholas, ME Larsen, J Firth, H Christensen. Evidence-based mental health. 2018 Jun 5:ebmental-2018.
- Digital Technologies in the Treatment of Anxiety: Recent Innovations and Future Directions. J Firth, J Torous. R Carney, J Newby, TD Cosco , H Christensen, J Sarris . Current psychiatry reports. 2018 Jun 1;20(6):44.
- Mental health apps: What to tell patients: An evaluation model created specifically for such apps can help guide your discussions. J Torous, J Luo, SR Chan. Current Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 1;17(3):21-6.
- Smartphone Apps for Autism Spectrum Disorder—Understanding the Evidence. JW Kim, TQ Nguyen, SY Gipson , AL Shin AL, J Torous. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science. 2018 Mar 1;3(1):1-4.
- Digitally driven integrated primary care and behavioral health: how technology can expand access to effective treatment. L Raney, D Bergman, J Torous, M Hasselberg. Current psychiatry reports. 2017 Nov 1;19(11):86.
- To use or not? evaluating ASPECTS of smartphone apps and mobile technology for clinical care in psychiatry. J Torous, S Chan. P Yellowless. R Boland. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2016
- Smartphones for Smarter Care? Self-Management in Schizophrenia. L Sandoval, J Torous, J, MS Keshavan. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(8), pp.725-728., 2017
- Current research and trends in the use of smartphone applications for mood disorders. J Torous, AC Powell. Internet Interventions 2 (2), 169-173, 2014
4. Medical Education / Teaching with Technology
How can online tools and smartphones be used to enhance medical student and resident education? How can educators incorporate online learning in the most effective manner?
Research efforts in this space include assessing the current state of digital technology in medication education through surveys and focus groups. In addition, the group maintains the crowd sourced online question bank website: psy-q.com which is free to use. We also support smartphone based learning tools include a translation of the Harvard Psychopharmacology Project's algorithms into an easy to use app available for free via the ITunes Store: LINK. Finally, we offer a didactic series on using technology for care delivery.
- Connecting Through Technology: a Collaborative Psychiatry Trainee and Educator Online Platform. J Torous, Z Grunau, R Thom, R Boland, F Meyer . Academic Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry. 2018 Jun;42(3):426.
- Exploring the Association Between Electronic Health Record Use and Burnout Among Psychiatry Residents and Faculty: a Pilot Survey Study. NM Domaney, J Torous, WE Greenberg. Academic Psychiatry. 2018 May 21:1-5.
- Smart Steps for Psychiatric Education: Approaching Smartphone Apps for Learning and Care. J Torous, A Bauer, S Chan, R Boland, D Ramo. Academic Psychiatry. 2018 Apr 10:1-5.
- Developing a Digitally Informed Curriculum in Psychiatry Education and Clinical Practice. JW Kim, J Torous J, S Chan, SY Gipson. Academic Psychiatry. 2018 Feb 22:1-9.
- Clinical informatics in psychiatric training: preparing today’s trainees for the already present future. J Torous, S Chan, J Luo, R Boland R, D Hilty. Academic Psychiatry. 2017:1-4.
- Creating a pilot educational psychiatry website: opportunities, barriers, and next steps. J Torous, R O'Connor, J Franzen, C Snow, R Boland , R Kitts R JMIR medical education. 2015 Jul;1(2).